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Letters and Sounds is a phonics resource by the Department for Education. It aims to build children's speaking and listening skills as well as preparing children for learning to read and write by developing their phonic knowledge and skills. 

There are six overlapping phases. 

Phase

Phonic Knowledge and Skills

Phase One

Activities are divided into seven aspects, including environmental sounds, instrumental sounds, body sounds, rhythm and rhyme, alliteration, voice sounds and finally oral blending and segmenting.

Phase Two

Learning 19 letters sounds. Blending sounds together to make words. Segmenting words into their separate sounds to help write words. Beginning to read and write simple captions.
Phase Three The remaining 7 letters of the alphabet, one sound for each. Next, graphemes such as ch, oo, th representing two letters but one sound. Focusing on reading and writing captions and sentences. 

Phase Four

No new grapheme-phoneme correspondences are taught in this phase. Children learn to blend and segment longer words with adjacent consonants, e.g. swim, clap, jump.
Phase Five Now we move on to the "complex code". Children learn more graphemes for the phonemes which they already know, plus different ways of pronouncing the graphemes they already know.
Phase Six Working on spelling, including prefixes and suffixes, doubling and dropping letters etc.